7.3 状语从句的简化-英语语法新思维-高级英语-友谊教程网-www.01ue.com

7.3 状语从句的简化


While the teacher was lecturing to the class, I fell asleep.

妙语点睛 这里从句的主语是the teacher,而主句的主语是I,两者不一致,因此状语从句不能简化成短语。此句若简化成现在分词短语说成:While lecturing to the class, I fell asleep.意思则是“当我在给这个班上课时,我睡着了”,这样显然不妥。

精品译文 在老师上课的时候,我睡着了。


7.3.1 状语从句与分词


1 1) A zero can have its meaning only when it is used with real numbers; thoughts can give off brilliant light only when they are put into actions.
2) A zero can have its meaning only when used with real numbers; thoughts can give off brilliant light only when put into actions.

妙语点睛 这里两个when引导的从句中分别省去了it is和they are。这里的it指主句的主语zero,they指主句的主语thoughts。

精品译文 零,只有和实数用在一起才有意义;思想,只有付诸行动才能发出光芒。

2 1) A tiger can't be tamed unless it is caught very young.
2) A tiger can't be tamed unless caught very young.

妙语点睛 这里unless引导的从句中省略了it is。这里的it指主句的主语tiger。

精品译文 老虎只有在年幼时抓来才能被驯服。


3 1) Since I came to Beijing, I have made many new friends.
2) Since coming to Beijing, I have made many new friends.

精品译文 来到北京之后我交了很多朋友。

4 1) After I finished my homework, I fed the dog.
2) After finishing my homework, I fed the dog.

精品译文 做完作业,我就喂狗了。

5 1) After he jumped out of a boat, the man was bitten by a shark.
2) After jumping out of a boat, the man was bitten by a shark.

精品译文 那名男子从船上跳出后,就被一条鲨鱼咬了。

7.3.2 状语从句与不定式


1 1) I turned off the TV in order that my roommate could study in peace and quiet.
2) I turned off the TV in order for my roommate to study in peace and quiet.

精品译文 我关掉了电视,好让我的室友安静地学习。

2 1) I spoke slowly and clearly so that/in order that the audience could understand me.
2) I spoke slowly and clearly in order for the audience to understand me.

精品译文 我讲得既慢又清晰,以便观众能听懂我的话。

3 1) They carved the words on the stone so that/in order that the future generation should remember what they had done.
2) They carved the words on the stone in order for the future generation to remember what they had done.

精品译文 他们在石头上刻字,以便后人记住他们做过的事情。

4 1) The teacher raised his voice in order that the students in the back could hear more clearly.
2) The teacher raised his voice in order for the students in the back to hear more clearly.

精品译文 老师提高了声音,以便坐在后排的学生能听得更清楚。


Exercise 7.3


1. While I was waiting for the bus, a brick fell on my head.

2. After I turned to the corner, I saw a tile fall off the roof.

3. After I turned to the corner, a tile fell off the roof.

4. When I opened the door of the refrigerator, the smell was bad.

5. While I was watching TV last night, the telephone rang.

6. Before I came to class, I had a cup of coffee.

7. After he had finished breakfast, he left the house and went to his office.

8. After she had completed her shopping, she went home.

9. Alex hurt his back while he was chopping wood.

10. You should always read a contract before you sign your name.

11. While I was trying to get to sleep last night, a mosquito kept buzzing in my ear.

12. Since we arrived here, we have made many new friends.

13. After we looked at the map, we tried to find the right street.





















1. Oceans continually lose by evaporation much of the river water    .

A. to constantly flow into them
B. is constantly flowing into them
C. constantly flows into them
D. constantly flowing into them

2. Tornadoes, powerful, destructive wind storms, occur most often in the spring when hot winds     over flat land encounter heavy, cold air.

A. which to rise
B. that rising
C. are rising
D. rising

3. In 1938 Pearl S. Buck became the first American woman     the Nobel Prize for Literature.

A. receive
B. received
C. to receive
D. she received

4. The first explorer     California by land was Strong Smith, a trapper who crossed the southwestern deserts of the United States in 1825.

A. that he reached
B. to reach
C. reached
D. reaching it

5.     often found in fruit and vegetables.

A. Vitamin C, a trace element that is
B. For vitamin C, a trace element to be
C. Vitamin C, a trace element, is
D. Vitamin C, is that trace element.

6. The Amazon rain forests,     the earth's lungs, convert carbon dioxide in the atmosphere back into oxygen.

A. functioning as
B. which functioning as
C. functions as
D. functioned as

7. Through a process     coalescence, water droplets in clouds grow to a size large enough to fall to earth.

A. calls
B. to be called
C. calling
D. called

8. Penicillin,     in the early 20th century, brought in the golden age of chemotherapy.

A. to be discovered
B. discovering
C. discovery was
D. discovered

9. The mouse, like the keyboard, is a control device     to a computer.

A. connected
B. to connect it
C. and connect
D. that connect

10. An amendment to the Constitution     in Harry Truman's tenure limits the US presidency to two terms.

A. passing
B. to pass
C. passed
D. was passed

11. A reagent is any chemical that reacts in a predictable way     with other chemicals.

A. when mixed
B. when is mixed
C. it mixed
D. when mixing

12. A beam of light will not bend round corners unless     to do so with the help of a reflecting device.

A. made
B. to be made
C. being made
D. having made

13. As a general rule, snakes don't bite unless    .

A. offended
B. are offended
C. they offended
D. offending

14. She had said little so far, responding only briefly when    .

A. speaking
B. spoken
C. speaking to
D. spoken to

15.    , his family moved to America.

A. When still a baby
B. When a baby still
C. When he was still a baby
D. When being still a baby

16.     native to Europe, the daisy has now spread throughout most of North America.

A. Although
B. If it were
C. In spite of
D. That it is

17. In its pure state antimony has no important uses, but     with other substances, it is an extremely useful metal.

A. when combined physically or chemically
B. combined when physically or chemically
C. the physical and chemical combination
D. it is combined physically and chemically

18. Although pure diamond is colorless and transparent,     with other material it may appear in various colors, ranging from pastels to opaque black.

A. but when contaminated
B. but when contaminating
C. when contaminated
D. when contaminating

19.     classified as a carnivore, the North American grizzly bear eats berries and even grass.

A. Just as
B. Because of
C. Although
D. Either

20.     usually thought to end in northern New Mexico, the Rocky Mountains really extend southward to the frontier of Mexico.

A. Despite
B. To be
C. While
D. However

21. Nearly all trees contain a mix of polymers that can burn like petroleum     properly extracted.

A. after
B. if
C. when it
D. is

22. Although     rigid, bones exhibit a degree of elasticity that enables the skeleton to withstand considerable impact.

A. apparently
B. are apparently
C. apparently their
D. are they apparently

23. Although     of the world's oceans, the Atlantic has by far the largest drainage area.

A. the largest is not
B. not the largest
C. the largest not
D. largest not the