7.3 状语从句的简化-英语语法新思维-高级英语-友谊教程网-www.01ue.com

7.3 状语从句的简化

首先,我们还是要搞清楚在什么情况下状语从句才可能被简化。一般来说,只有当状语从句的主语和主句的主语相同时,才能把状语从句换成短语。否则,会引起句义的改变。例如:

While the teacher was lecturing to the class, I fell asleep.

妙语点睛 这里从句的主语是the teacher,而主句的主语是I,两者不一致,因此状语从句不能简化成短语。此句若简化成现在分词短语说成:While lecturing to the class, I fell asleep.意思则是“当我在给这个班上课时,我睡着了”,这样显然不妥。

精品译文 在老师上课的时候,我睡着了。

在三大非谓语当中,只有不定式和分词才可能作状语,因而状语从句自然也只能简化成这两种非谓语形式。

7.3.1 状语从句与分词

由于分词具有副词的功能,可以在句中作状语,所以状语从句往往可以简化成分词短语。具体的简化操作是:如果状语从句中含有be动词,我们只需把从句主语和be动词省去,即简化成短语。对于这种简化方式,其实我们在第三章“状语从句”的3.2节讨论过,在此仅举几例予以说明。比如:

1 1) A zero can have its meaning only when it is used with real numbers; thoughts can give off brilliant light only when they are put into actions.
2) A zero can have its meaning only when used with real numbers; thoughts can give off brilliant light only when put into actions.

妙语点睛 这里两个when引导的从句中分别省去了it is和they are。这里的it指主句的主语zero,they指主句的主语thoughts。

精品译文 零,只有和实数用在一起才有意义;思想,只有付诸行动才能发出光芒。

2 1) A tiger can't be tamed unless it is caught very young.
2) A tiger can't be tamed unless caught very young.

妙语点睛 这里unless引导的从句中省略了it is。这里的it指主句的主语tiger。

精品译文 老虎只有在年幼时抓来才能被驯服。

如果状语从句中没有be动词,我们则可把从句的主语省去并且把动词变成现在分词-ing形式。对于这种状语从句的简化,其实就相当于分词作状语,详见6.2节。在此仅举几例予以说明。比如:

3 1) Since I came to Beijing, I have made many new friends.
2) Since coming to Beijing, I have made many new friends.

精品译文 来到北京之后我交了很多朋友。

4 1) After I finished my homework, I fed the dog.
2) After finishing my homework, I fed the dog.

精品译文 做完作业,我就喂狗了。

5 1) After he jumped out of a boat, the man was bitten by a shark.
2) After jumping out of a boat, the man was bitten by a shark.

精品译文 那名男子从船上跳出后,就被一条鲨鱼咬了。

7.3.2 状语从句与不定式

能够简化为不定式的状语从句一般只有目的状语从句,因为在英语中,作目的状语几乎成了不定式的专属功能。详见3.5节。在此仅举几例予以说明。比如:

1 1) I turned off the TV in order that my roommate could study in peace and quiet.
2) I turned off the TV in order for my roommate to study in peace and quiet.

精品译文 我关掉了电视,好让我的室友安静地学习。

2 1) I spoke slowly and clearly so that/in order that the audience could understand me.
2) I spoke slowly and clearly in order for the audience to understand me.

精品译文 我讲得既慢又清晰,以便观众能听懂我的话。

3 1) They carved the words on the stone so that/in order that the future generation should remember what they had done.
2) They carved the words on the stone in order for the future generation to remember what they had done.

精品译文 他们在石头上刻字,以便后人记住他们做过的事情。

4 1) The teacher raised his voice in order that the students in the back could hear more clearly.
2) The teacher raised his voice in order for the students in the back to hear more clearly.

精品译文 老师提高了声音,以便坐在后排的学生能听得更清楚。

思维训练

Exercise 7.3

把下列能够简化的状语从句简化为短语,对于不能简化的,请说明原因。

1. While I was waiting for the bus, a brick fell on my head.

2. After I turned to the corner, I saw a tile fall off the roof.

3. After I turned to the corner, a tile fell off the roof.

4. When I opened the door of the refrigerator, the smell was bad.

5. While I was watching TV last night, the telephone rang.

6. Before I came to class, I had a cup of coffee.

7. After he had finished breakfast, he left the house and went to his office.

8. After she had completed her shopping, she went home.

9. Alex hurt his back while he was chopping wood.

10. You should always read a contract before you sign your name.

11. While I was trying to get to sleep last night, a mosquito kept buzzing in my ear.

12. Since we arrived here, we have made many new friends.

13. After we looked at the map, we tried to find the right street.

写给读者的话

一、从句与非谓语的相关性

本书的前三章讨论了英语中的三大从句:名词从句、定语从句和状语从句;在紧接下来的三章讨论了英语中的三大非谓语:不定式、动名词和分词。通过本章内容的讲解,现在我们来简单比较一下从句与非谓语的相关性。如下图所示:

这里的粗箭头()表示关系更密切,而细箭头()则表示关系不密切。

从上图我们可以有以下发现:

第一,名词从句一般仅与动名词和不定式有关,其中与动名词的关系更密切。

第二,定语从句一般仅与分词和不定式有关,其中与分词的关系更密切。

第三,状语从句一般仅与分词和不定式有关,其中与分词的关系更密切。

换个角度来看,从非谓语的角度来分析,结论如下:

第一,不定式像是一个“万金油”,与三大从句都有联系,但联系都不是非常密切。这也就是它“不定(indefinite)”的真正含义。

第二,相比较不定式而言,动名词则表现得比较“单纯”,它只与名词从句发生关系,而且关系非常密切,二者可以互换。动名词与定语从句和状语从句都没有联系。

第三,分词则与英语中的两大重要从句即定语从句和状语从句均有密切关系,由此可见分词的重要地位。而分词与名词从句没有什么联系。

最后,从难易程度来看,结论如下:

第一,名词从句和动名词是最简单的。结构简单,内容较少,容易掌握。

第二,定语从句和分词是最难的。结构复杂,内容多,二者有很多内容在理解和使用方面都比较难,所以读者对其中比较难的内容要有勇气攻克下来,多思考、多体会,或者向笔者咨询。不要因为难理解而轻易放弃。

第三,状语从句和不定式虽然不是最难的部分,但最为繁杂。理解起来虽然不是很困难,但内容多而杂乱。比如状语从句有九大类,有各种各样的连词用法;不定式则在句中可以充当各种成分,灵活多变。所以读者要有耐心,认真比较分析,不要混淆。

二、结束语

写到这里,《英语语法新思维》这套丛书的“高级”部分内容已接近尾声了。在“高级”这本书里,我们主要讨论了三大从句和三大非谓语以及它们之间的关系,总共包括七章内容。希望读者能够按照上面总结的这些关系特点来把握本书中的所有内容,在头脑里建立起清晰的英语语法框架,并在英语实践中灵活运用。

综合练习

选择最佳答案填空。

1. Oceans continually lose by evaporation much of the river water    .

A. to constantly flow into them
B. is constantly flowing into them
C. constantly flows into them
D. constantly flowing into them

2. Tornadoes, powerful, destructive wind storms, occur most often in the spring when hot winds     over flat land encounter heavy, cold air.

A. which to rise
B. that rising