7.1 名词从句的简化-英语语法新思维-高级英语-友谊教程网-www.01ue.com

7.1 名词从句的简化

我们知道,名词从句是属于名词性的,而英文中的三大非谓语只有动名词和不定式具有名词的特征,可以当成名词来使用。因此,属于名词类的名词从句自然能被简化成两种形式——动名词和不定式。

7.1.1 名词从句与动名词

在第一章“名词从句”中我们讲过,四大类名词从句(即主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)主要是由三种句子转化过来的,即陈述句、一般疑问句和特殊疑问句。但这三种句子不能直接作句子成分,需要经过一些结构上的变化。比如,陈述句转化为名词从句时要用连词that引导;一般疑问句转化为名词从句时要用if或whether来引导;特殊疑问句转化为名词从句时不需要另外添加连词,只需保留特殊疑问词(如what或who)即可。现在的结论是:由陈述句变来的,即由that引导的名词从句一般简化成动名词来表达,通常采用动名词复合结构的形式;由疑问句变来的,即由whether或what等引导的名词从句一般简化为不定式。

下面我们就举例说明that引导的名词从句与动名词之间的相关性。

一、that引导的主语从句与动名词

直接用动名词的复合结构来替换主语从句,放在句首作主语。请比较:

1 1) It surprised us that John won the marathon.
2) That John won the marathon surprised us.
3) John's winning the marathon surprised us.

妙语点睛 在例句1)中,it是形式主语,真正的主语是that引导的从句John won the marathon,被后置了。在例句2)中,that引导的从句John won the marathon作主语,谓语是surprised。在例句3)中,由例句2)中的主语从句John won the marathon变为动名词的复合结构John's winning the marathon来充当句子的主语。

精品译文 约翰赢得了马拉松比赛,这真让我们吃惊。

请再比较:

2 1) That he lost the game came as a surprise to everybody.
2) His losing the game came as a surprise to everybody.

妙语点睛 在例句1)中,that引导的主语从句that he lost the game作主语,谓语是came。在例句2)中,由例句1)中的主语从句that he lost the game变为动名词的复合结构his losing the game来充当句子的主语。

精品译文 他在比赛中失利,这让每个人都觉得很意外。

二、that引导的同位语从句与动名词

简化that引导的同位语从句时,也是变同位语从句为一个动名词的复合结构。但是,因为英文中没有“名词+动名词”这样的结构,所以要在同位语从句修饰的名词后面加上一个介词,来连接名词与动名词,同时表达同位语关系。能担当此任的介词通常是of,偶尔可以用about等。于是句子由原来的同位语从句结构“名词+that同位语从句”变成了一个动名词结构“名词+of+动名词的复合结构”。请比较:

3 1) There was no chance that Davy would come from the battle alive.
2) There was no chance of Davy coming from the battle alive.

妙语点睛 在例句1)中,that引导的同位语从句Davy would come from the battle alive补充说明先行词chance,以表明chance的具体内容。在例句2)中,由例句1)中的同位语从句that Davy would come from the battle alive变为动名词的复合结构Davy coming from the battle alive,放在介词of后面,来补充说明chance。这里的of表示同位说明关系。

精品译文 大卫不可能从战场上生还。

再请比较:

4 1) We were greatly encouraged by the news that China had launched another man-made satellite.
2) We were greatly encouraged by the news of China having launched another man-made satellite.

妙语点睛 在例句1)中,that引导的同位语从句China had launched another man-made satellite补充说明先行词news,以表明news的具体内容。在例句2)中,由例句1)中的同位语从句China had launched another man-made satellite变为动名词的复合结构China having launched another man-made satellite,放在介词of后面,来补充说明news。这里的of表示同位说明关系。

精品译文 听到中国又发射了一颗人造卫星的消息,我们都受到极大的鼓舞。

再请比较:

5 1) Anyone with half an eye on the unemployment figures knew that the assertion that economic recovery would be just around the corner was untrue.
2) Anyone with half an eye on the unemployment figures knew that the assertion about economic recovery being just around the corner was untrue.

妙语点睛 在例句1)中,that引导的同位语从句economic recovery would be just around the corner补充说明先行词assertion,以表明assertion的具体内容。在例句2)中,由例句1)中的同位语从句 economic recovery would be just around the corner变为动名词的复合结构economic recovery being just around the corner,放在介词about后面,来补充说明assertion。这里的about表示同位说明关系。

精品译文 任何人只要稍稍看一眼目前的失业率就能知道,有关经济复苏即将到来的断言是不符合事实的。

三、that引导的宾语从句与动名词

由that引导的宾语从句的简化较为复杂,因为它可以转换成动名词,也可以转换成不定式,这主要与主句谓语动词的用法密切相关。请比较:

6 1) I consider that I will emigrate to America in the future.
2) I consider emigrating to America in the future.

妙语点睛 在例句1)中,that引导的宾语从句I will emigrate to America in the future充当动词consider的宾语。在例句2)中,由例句1)中的宾语从句I will emigrate to America in the future变为动名词emigrating to America in the future。这是因为consider的后面要接动名词,不能接不定式,因此该从句要简化为动名词。

精品译文 我在考虑将来移民到美国。

有的主句的谓语动词后面还需添加一个介词,然后才能接动名词作宾语。例如:

7 1) Jane's mother insisted that she should go swimming with her brother.
2) Jane's mother insisted on her going swimming with her brother.

妙语点睛 在例句1)中,that引导的宾语从句she should go swimming with her brother充当动词insisted的宾语。在例句2)中,由例句1)中的宾语从句she should go swimming with her brother变为动名词的复合结构her going swimming with her brother,并且之前还添加了介词on,这是因为insist的后面要接介词on之后才能接宾语。

精品译文 简的妈妈坚持要求她和她哥哥一起去游泳。

同理类推,对于那些要求接不定式作宾语的动词,其后的that引导的宾语从句简化后只能是不定式。比如:

8 1) I hope that I can drive to work in my own car.
2) I hope to drive to work in my own car.

妙语点睛 在例句1)中,that引导的宾语从句I can drive to work in my own car充当动词hope的宾语。在例句2)中,由例句1)中的宾语从句I can drive to work in my own car变为不定式to drive to work in my own car,这是因为hope的后面要接不定式,不能接动名词,因此该从句要简化为不定式。

精品译文 我希望能够开着自己的车去上班。

综上所述,宾语从句是简化成动名词还是不定式形式,完全取决于主句的谓语动词。因此,要求我们对动词的用法比较熟悉,我们在前面各章节中已经分别列举过接动名词或不定式作宾语的动词。

思维总结

本节主要讨论了that引导的名词从句与动名词的复合结构之间的关系,二者可以进行相互转换,这尤其是针对that引导的主语从句和同位语从句而言。that引导的宾语从句是简化成动名词还是不定式形式,完全取决于主句的谓语动词。

思维训练

Exercise 7.1.1

简化下列名词从句

1. The student denied that he had cheated on the exam.

2. That the president was involved in the fraud is obvious.

3. I consider that this is a far-reaching event.

4. That he lost the game came as a surprise to everybody.

5. That he worked all night in the rain caused him to catch a bad cold.

6. The boy is worried about the possibility that he will fail in the exam.

7. That he tries sending her girlfriend flowers every day is the only way he can think of to gain her favor.

8. I remember that he once offered to help us if we ever got into trouble.

9. You must tell me the truth. I insist that you should tell the truth.

10. Nowhere in nature is aluminum found free, owing to the fact that it is always combined with other elements, most commonly with oxygen.

11. That children object to their parents remarrying has become a prevalent social problem.

12. The teacher said that he wouldn't tolerate that I arrived late every day.

13. That the girl was educated in an atmosphere of simple living was what her parents wished for.

7.1.2 名词从句与不定式

上文讲过,由疑问句变来的,即由whether或what等引导的名词从句一般简化为不定式,其实主要是宾语从句简化为不定式。此时的宾语从句中往往含有情态动词,比较多见的是should或can/could。请比较:

1 1) She can't decide whether she should go with him or stay home.
2) She can't decide whether to go with him or(to)stay home.

妙语点睛 由whether引导的宾语从句whether she should go with him or stay home变为不定式whether to go with him or stay home,这里的不定式具有“应该”的情态意义。

精品译文 她还没有决定,应该和他一起去还是就呆在家里。

再比如:

2 1) I haven't decided whether I should vote for Clint.
2) I haven't decided whether to vote for Clint.

精品译文 我还没有决定是否应该给克林特投票。

我们再来看两个疑问句的例子:

3 1) I don't know what I should do.
2) I don't know what to do.

妙语点睛 由what引导的宾语从句what I should do变为不定式what to do,这里的不定式具有“应该”的情态意义。

精品译文 我不知道该做什么。

4 1) Please tell me how I can get to the bus station.
2) Please tell me how to get to the bus station.

妙语点睛 由how引导的宾语从句how I can get to the bus station变为不定式how to get to the bus station,这里的不定式具有“能够”的情态意义。

精品译文 请告诉我去汽车站怎么走。

思维总结

本节主要讨论了由疑问句变来的名词从句与不定式之间的关系,尤其是宾语从句,可以转换为一个带有相应连词的不定式结构。

思维训练

Exercise 7.1.2

简化下列名词从句。

1. The plumber told me how I could fix the leak in the sink.

2. Please tell me where I should meet you.

3. I don't know whether I should believe him or not.

4. Sam is getting dressed to go to a party, but is having trouble deciding on what clothes he should wear.

5. He found two shirts he liked, but he had trouble deciding which one he should buy.

6. I was tongue-tied. I didn't know what I should say.

7. Going to the school dance is a lot of fun. But sometimes, deciding who I can go with isn't easy.

8. A: I don't know what I should buy for her birthday. Got any suggestions?
B: How about a book?
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