6.4.2 作补足语的分词与不定式的区别-英语语法新思维-高级英语-友谊教程网-www.01ue.com

6.4 分词的作用(三):补足语

本节将讨论分词在感觉动词后充当宾语补足语的情况和作补足语的分词与不定式的区别。

6.4.1 分词在感觉动词后充当宾语补足语

分词充当句子的补足语一般仅限于用在感觉动词后。这样的感觉动词包括:find, hear, smell, observe, watch和notice等等。请看例句:

1 A: Do you hear all those different birds singing in the park?
B: It's beautiful. It sounds like a symphony!

妙语点睛 该句中把分词singing放在动词hear后面作宾语补足语。

精品译文 A:公园里有各种鸟儿在歌唱,你听到了吗?

B:真美妙,听上去就像是交响乐。

2 There are many times I look out of my window and smile at the sights. I hear the sound of flowers blooming and the heart-beat leaves growing.

妙语点睛 该句中把分词growing放在动词hear后面作宾语补足语。但blooming不是宾语补足语,而是构成动名词的复合结构flowers blooming(花开),然后作of的宾语,the sound of flowers blooming表示“花开的声音”。

精品译文 每每我看向窗外,总能让我会心地微笑,因为我听见了花开的声音,还有树叶的生长,生机勃发。

3 I heard him criticized many times.

精品译文 我听见他多次受到批评。

4 We saw the sun rising from behind the trees.

精品译文 我们看见太阳从树木后面慢慢升起。

5 You can see the vapor rising from the wet clothes when they are hung on the fire.

精品译文 当湿衣服晾在火炉边时,你能看见水蒸气从衣服上蒸发。

再看下面这两个笑话:

6 Customer: Your dog seems very fond of watching you cutting hair.
Barber: It isn't that. Sometimes I snip off a bit of a customer's ear.

精品译文 顾客:你的狗似乎很喜欢看你给别人理发嘛。

理发师:不是这么回事,而是因为我常常会剪掉客人们一点耳朵什么的。

7 A teacher entered the classroom and noticed a girl student sitting near the door with her feet in the aisle and chewing gum. "Ethel," exclaimed the teacher, "take that gum out of your mouth and put your feet in."

精品译文 一位老师走进教室,发现有个女生坐在门边,脚伸到过道里,嘴里还嚼着口香糖。老师大声喊道:“埃塞尔,把口香糖从嘴里吐出来,把你的脚放进去!”

如果句子的谓语使用了被动语态,则此时的分词是补充说明主语的,因此被称为主语补足语,比如:

8 British gentlemen, to our way of thinking, wear a suit and a tie. They don't want to stand out, just be a part of the correct group. Things have changed, however, over the past 20 years. Now there's the Brand You approach. UK Prime Minister Tony Blair has helped to accelerate male casualness and individuality. On many public occasions, he has been seen making tie-free appearances.

妙语点睛 这里的分词短语making tie-free appearances是用在被动态的谓语has been seen后面,补充说明主语he,因此被称为主语补足语。

这句讲的是英国人一改过去刻板的绅士形象,而创造自己的个性(create yourself with Brand You)。

精品译文 英国绅士,按照我们惯常的想法,应该是穿着西服,打着领带的。他们不想与众不同,只是想与大众一致。不过,近二十多年来,情况改变了,人们开始注重自己的个性。英国首相托尼·布莱尔在推动男性的随意性和个性化方面起到了带头作用。在很多公开场合,人们看到他不打领带。

以上例句都是现在分词doing用在感觉动词后面充当宾语补足语。我们再来看一个含有过去分词的例句:

9 I saw passengers engulfed in fire.

妙语点睛 该句中的过去分词engulfed用在saw后面作宾语补足语。

这句话是2007年9月16日泰国南部飞机失事事故的一名幸存者说的。当日下午,一架泰国民航飞机在普吉国际机场冒雨降落时滑出跑道并起火爆炸。据当地媒体报道,事故已造成八十多人遇难。

精品译文 我看到乘客被大火吞没。

我们还可以用被动进行的分词being done的形式来作宾语补足语,相当于现在分词与过去分词的结合体,既有进行意味又有被动意味。比如:

10 Face-swapping is a Chinese cultural asset that needs to be protected. In recent years we have seen cases of traditional Chinese brands being pirated or patented overseas. As the world focuses on intellectual property protection in China, we also need to protect our own assets.

妙语点睛 该句作宾语补足语的是being pirated or patented这样的被动进行的分词形式,用在动词have seen后面。

精品译文 “变脸”艺术是中国的文化财富,需要加以保护。近些年来,我们常常看到中国的传统品牌正在海外被盗版或被申请专利这样的事件发生。时下全世界都眼盯着中国的知识产权保护,我们也需要保护我们自己的文化资源。

6.4.2 作补足语的分词与不定式的区别

在这些动词之后,我们也可以用不带to的不定式作补足语。二者的区别是:用现在分词,强调动作正在进行;用不定式则表示一般的动作或一个动作自始至终的全过程。请比较:

1 1) I watched them climb the tower.
2) I watched them climbing the tower.

妙语点睛 在例句1)中,不定式climb表示他们到达了塔顶,“我”在观看他们爬上塔顶的全过程。在例句2)中,分词climbing意味着进行体所表示的潜在未完成性,即他们现在没有到达塔顶,而是正在往上爬的过程中。

精品译文 1)我观看他们一直爬到塔顶。

2)我看见他们正在往塔顶爬。

2 When I glanced out of the window I saw Mary crossing the road.

妙语点睛 这里的分词crossing表示动作正在进行,比如玛丽正在马路中间,而不是表示她过马路的全过程。

精品译文 我往窗外一瞥,正好看见玛丽在过马路。

3 I watched him step off the pavement, cross the road, and disappear into the post office.

妙语点睛 这里有三个动作是并列的:step,cross和disappear,所以必然都是全过程,因此该句的cross不能用分词crossing。

精品译文 我看见他走下人行道,穿过马路,进了邮局,然后就不见了。

4 In the park you often see people do shadowboxing.

精品译文 在公园,你经常能见到人们在打太极拳。

5 I saw him doing shadowboxing when I came in.

精品译文 我进来时,看见他正在打太极拳。

除了上述的感觉动词,分词也可以在get和have后面作宾语补足语,比如读者熟悉的have sth. done的句型就是典型的例子。请看例句:

6 When you are preparing for your college adventures abroad, it's easy enough to make sure you get all the right forms filled out, have your passport ready, your bags packed, and your textbooks waiting for you at the other end, but how do you prepare for the adjustment to a new place? Especially, how to survive culture shock?

妙语点睛 该句中有三个分词filled out, packed和waiting来作相应宾语的补足语。

精品译文 当你准备踏上国外求学的冒险之旅时,填写各种表格、准备护照、打点行李,以及让学校那边为你准备好课本等等都相当容易,但是你如何准备去适应一个新的环境,特别是如何克服文化冲突呢?

思维总结

本节内容比较简单,读者只需要记住在哪些动词后边常常会接分词作宾语补足语即可。此外,了解分词与不定式作宾语补足语时的语义差别。

思维训练

Exercise 6.4

选择最佳答案填空。

1. You will see this product     wherever you go.

A. to be advertised
B. advertised
C. advertise
D. advertising

2. The manager promised to keep me     of how our business was going on.

A. to be informed
B. on informing
C. informed
D. informing

3. Corn originated in the New World and thus was not known in Europe until Columbus found it     in Cuba.

A. being cultivated
B. having cultivated
C. been cultivated
D. cultivating

4. When I caught him     me I stopped buying things there and started dealing with another shop.

A. cheat
B. cheating
C. to cheat
D. to be cheating

5. He was caught     his classmate's money the other day.

A. to steal
B. stealing
C. to have stolen
D. having stolen

6. Mrs. Douglas unknowingly left a package     on the shop counter.

A. laying
B. to lie
C. laid
D. lying

7. His remarks left me     about his real purpose.

A. wondered
B. wonder
C. to wonder
D. wondering

8. Next time I catch you    , I'll turn you in to the police.

A. stealing from others' pockets
B. steal from other's pockets
C. stealing other's pockets
D. to steal from other's pockets

9. They'll have you     if you don't pay your taxes.

A. to be arrested
B. arrested
C. arrest
D. being arrested

10. "There is something wrong with the table." "Yes, I can    ."

A. feel it that it's moving
B. feel it moves
C. feel it moving
D. feel it to move

11. The hall was too noisy for the speaker to make himself    .

A. hear
B. hearing
C. being heard
D. heard
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