5.8 there be 的不定式与动名词形式-英语语法新思维-高级英语-友谊教程网-www.01ue.com

5.8 there be 的不定式与动名词形式

本节主要是比较there be句型的两种非谓语形式以及它们的用法。

5.8.1 there be的动名词形式

there be的动名词形式为there being,依然表示“有”的意思,多用于介词后面。

请看例句:

1 He spoke of there being danger.

妙语点睛 因为有介词of,所以该用动名词形式,即there being。

精品译文 他当时提到过有危险。

曾经有学生问过笔者:为什么这里要有there?我们不用there不可以吗?比如说:

He spoke of being danger. *

这主要是句子意思表达的需要,因为这里要表示“有危险”的意思,而不是“是危险”。所以要用there be而不是be。再者,因为要用在介词of后面,所以要用动名词there being。

再比如下面这个例句:

2 No one would have dreamed of there being such a good place.

妙语点睛 这里表示“有”且有介词of,故要用there be的动名词结构,即there being。

精品译文 谁也不会想到,会有这么一个好地方。

谈到中国人的婚姻状况,有一项研究得出下面的结论:

3 Do not bet on there being many marriages in China that began with love at first sight. Most Chinese marry for practical--not romantic--reasons. That is the conclusion of a four-year study sponsored by the Ford Foundation of New York City.

妙语点睛 这里表示“有”且有介词on,故要用there be的动名词结构,即there being。

精品译文 别以为许多中国人的婚姻始于“一见钟情”。实际上,大多数中国人结婚是出于非常实际的一些原因,而并非因为浪漫爱情。这是由纽约福特基金会主办的一项为期四年的调查研究得出的结论。

5.8.2 here be的不定式形式

there be的不定式形式为there to be,用在接不定式作宾语的动词后面或介词for后面。请看例句:

1 I don't mean there to be any unpleasantness.

妙语点睛 在mean的后面要接不定式,表示“打算”,所以用there to be。

精品译文 我并没有任何冒犯之意。

2 I don't want there to be any misunderstanding on this point.

妙语点睛 在want的后面要接不定式,所以用there to be。

精品译文 我不希望在这一点上有什么误解。

3 The students expected there to be more reviewing classes before the final exam.

妙语点睛 在expect的后面要接不定式,所以用there to be。

精品译文 同学们都希望在期末考试之前能够多上一些复习课。

我们再来看用在介词for后面的含有there to be的例句:

4 For there to be life, there must be air and water.
=In order that there may be life, there must be air and water.

妙语点睛 这里的不定式表示目的,相当于一个目的状语从句in order that there may be life。

精品译文 要想有生命,首先得要有空气和水。

5 For there to be successful communication, there must be attentiveness and involvement in the discussion itself by all present.
=In order that there may be successful communication, there must be attentiveness and involvement in the discussion itself by all present.

妙语点睛 这里的不定式表示目的,相当于一个目的状语从句In order that there may be successful communication...。

精品译文 为了达到成功的交流,就必须要求所有的参与者都专心听讲,并且积极参与讨论。

下面例句中的不定式是用在for引导的逻辑主语结构中,放在了形容词后面。比如:

6 It was too late for there to be any buses.

精品译文 当时太晚了,没有任何公共汽车。

7 It isn't cold enough for there to be a frost tonight; so I can leave Jim's car out quite safely.

精品译文 今晚外面不那么冷,不会有霜冻,因此我可以很安全地把吉姆的汽车放在外面。

思维总结

本节主要是讨论了there be(表示“有”)的非谓语形式的用法。读者需要掌握何时该用there being和there to be这两种形式,这在各类考试中经常出现。

思维训练

Exercise 5.8

选择最佳答案填空。

1. It is impossible     a happier family.

A. of there to be
B. there is
C. for there to be
D. there will be

2. John was relying on there     another opportunity.

A. was
B. being
C. had been
D. would

3. People expect there     more discussions on this topic.

A. are to
B. is to
C. to be
D. being

4. She was wrong about there     some misunderstanding between us.

A. be
B. been
C. being
D. has

5. No one had told Mr. Smith about     a lecture the following day. (2000年12 CET-4)

A. there be
B. there would be
C. there was
D. there being

6. Ann never dreams of     for her to be sent abroad very soon. (98. 6 CET-4)

A. there being a chance
B. there be a chance
C. there to be a chance
D. being a chance

7. The students expected there     more reviewing classes before the final exam.

A. is
B. being
C. have been
D. to be

8. For there     successful communication, there must be attentiveness and involvement in the discussion itself by all present.

A. is
B. to be
C. will be
D. being

9. It isn't cold enough for there     a frost tonight; so I can leave Jim's car out quite safely.

A. would be
B. being
C. was
D. to be

写给读者的话

一、本章学习思路

本章内容主要有两大方面:一是动名词在句中所能充当的各种成分;二是动名词本身的构成形式,即动名词的时态和语态构成。要求读者能真正理解各种动名词形式所能表达的不同含义。

二、本章重点及难点

本章的重点内容有:动名词作宾语的结构和句型,动名词的复合结构,动名词的被动结构和完成结构。本章的内容总体来说并不难,主要是记忆相关的动词或短语的问题。

三、本章学习时间安排

由于本章的内容不多,也不难,所以读者可以花比较少的时间来学习,比如用三至五天时间看完所有的内容和做完所有的练习。

综合练习

1. 选择最佳答案填空。

1. People appreciate     with him because he has a good sense of humor.

A. to work
B. to have worked
C. working
D. having worked

2. Although a teenager, Fred could resist     what to do and what not to do.

A. to be told
B. having been told
C. being told
D. to have been told

3. "Is George really leaving the university?" "Yes, but would you mind     to anyone?"

A. not mentioning
B. not mention it
C. not to mention it
D. not mentioning it

4. I can't understand     a decision until it is too late.

A. him to postpone to make
B. his postpone making
C. his postponing to make
D. his postponing making

5. We were greatly encouraged by the news of China     another man-made satellite.

A. to have launched
B. to launch
C. launched
D. having launched

6. At six o'clock in the evening, when a cat ran through a truck it narrowly escaped     over.

A. running
B. to be run
C. from running
D. being run

7. Building that railway was very difficult and involved     ten tunnels.

A. dig
B. digging
C. to have dug
D. having dug

8. I strongly object     like a child.

A. to be treated
B. to being treated
C. of being treated
D. of treating

9. That young man still denies     the fire behind the store.

A. to start
B. having started
C. start
D. to have started

10. The school authority doesn't permit     on campus.

A. demonstrate
B. to demonstrate
C. to hold a demonstration
D. demonstrating

11. There's a man at the reception desk who seems very angry and I think he means     trouble.

A. making
B. to make
C. to have made
D. having made

12. Do you remember     to Professor Smith during your last visit?

A. to be introduced
B. having introduced
C. being introduced
D. to have introduced

13. I'm sure your proposal will     the problem.

A. contribute to solving
B. be contribute to solve
C. contribute to solve
D. be contributed to solving

14. Ann prefers     taking an examination.

A. writing a term paper than
B. writing a term paper to
C. to write a term paper and
D. to write a term paper than

15. The teacher said that he wouldn't tolerate     late every day.

A. for me to arrive
B. me arrived
C. me to arrive
D. my arriving

16. Many of the things we do involve     some risk in order to achieve a satisfactory result.

A. taking
B. take care
C. to take
D. being taking

17. I don't think you will have any difficulty     a driving license.

A. for getting
B. to get
C. having got
D. getting

18. The thief caught on the spot by the policeman denied     anything.

A. to do
B. to have done
C. do
D. doing

19. I will overlook     so rude to my sister this time but don't let it happen again.

A. you to be
B. your being
C. you to have been
D. you having been

20. Although punctual himself, the professor was quite used     late for his lecture.

A. to have students
B. for students' being
C. for students to be
D. to students' being

21. Technology will play a key role in     future life-styles.

A. to shape
B. shaping
C. shape of
D. shaped

22. In some countries people favor     together even though there is much more space.

A. to stay
B. stay
C. staying
D. of staying

23.     can help but be fascinated by the world into which he is taken by the science fiction.

A. Everybody
B. Anybody
C. Somebody
D. Nobody

24. When Jane fell off the bike, the other children    .

A. were not able to help laughter
B. could not help but laughing
C. could not help laughing
D. could not help to laugh

25. Ted has told me that he always escapes     as he has got a very fast sports car.

A. to fine
B. to be fined
C. being fined
D. having been fined

26. Shortly after his retirement, the former president     gardening and hunting.

A. took to
B. took on
C. took in
D. took after

27. Since British Railways introduced its new inter-city expresses, many businessmen have taken     by train.

A. in traveling
B. to travel
C. to traveling
D. on travel

28. Perfectly matched pearls, strung into a necklace,     a far higher price than the same pearls sold individually.

A. in order to bring
B. bringing
C. their bringing
D. bring

29. The traditional approach     with complex problems is to break them down into smaller, more easily managed problems.

A. to dealing
B. in dealing
C. dealing
D. to deal

30. The supervisor said the school board was considering not     the students' proposal for the strict administration.

A. to accept
B. accept
C. accepted
D. accepting

31. Nearly every country in the world either claims to be democratic or to be on the way     democratic.

A. to becoming
B. to become
C. of becoming
D. in becoming

32. The government is believed to be considering     a law making it crime to import any weapon.

A. to pass
B. to have passed
C. passing
D. having passed

33. The items exhibited are well worth    , and attracted large crowds of visitors in the past few days.

A. seeing
B. to be seen
C. seen
D. to see

34. First designated in 1970, Earth Day has become an annual international event     concerns about environmental issues such as pollution.

A. dedicated to raising
B. dedicates to raising
C. dedicated to raise
D. dedicates to raise

35. Children objecting to their parents remarrying     a prevalent social problem.

A. has become
B. have become
C. had become
D. are becoming
36. --Is Henry sick?
--Yes.     all night in the rain caused him to catch a bad cold.
A. He worked
B. To have worked
C. Him working
D. His working

37.     theories approximate the truth is the day-to-day business of science.

A. Determining how closely
B. How closely to determine
C. How one determines close
D. One is close to determining

2. 辨别改错。

38. Mr. Smith regretted to blame (A) his secretary for (B) the mistake, for (C) he later discovered (D) it was his own fault.

39. The boy is constantly being told (A) not to scratch the paint off (B) the wall, but he goes on to do (C) it all the same (D).

40. When I consider how talented he is (A) as a painter (B), I cannot help but believing (C) that the public (D) will appreciate his gift.

41. Alice was having (A) trouble to control (B) the children because there were (C) so many (D) of them.

42. Some bosses dislike to allow (A) people to share (B) their responsibilities; they keep all (C) important matters tightly (D) in their own hands.

43. Neither rain nor snow keeps (A) the postman from delivering our letters which (B) we so much (C) look forward to receive (D).

44. Elected (A) to serve in the United States of Representatives in 1968, Shirley Chisholm was known (B) for advocacy (C) the interests of the urban (D) poor.

45. The Moon's gravitational (A) field cannot (B) keep atmospheric gases from escape (C) into space (D).

46. Using (A) carbon-dating techniques, archaeologists can determine the age of many ancient objects (B) by measurement (C) the amount of radioactive carbon they contain (D).

3. 用动词适当形式填空。

47. Jane is only 17 and she has just got her pilot's license. She is the country's youngest girl pilot. "How do you feel, Jane?" I asked her after her test. "Wonderful!" Jane cried. "I enjoy     (fly) more than anything in the world. I can't imagine     (let) a week pass without     (spend) some of my time in the air." "What started     (you/fly)?" I asked. "I just love     (travel) in planes. I started     (learn) to fly when I was very young." "Would you consider     (fly) as a career?" "I might, but I've got to pass my school exams now. There are some things you can't avoid     (do)!" "Excuse     ) (I/ask)," I said, "but does everyone in your family approve of     (you/fly)?" "Of course!," Jane exclaimed. "I can't imagine     (anyone/disapprove)." "What's your greatest ambition now?" "I want to learn to drive a car!" Jane said with a big smile.

4. 翻译下列短文(尽量使用动名词)。

论学英语

48. 学习英语就如同盖房子,打好基础(foundation)是第一步。而掌握语法对于学习英语来说,就像盖房子要有坚实的基础一样重要。还有人说,学英语就像学游泳,首先你得根据规则来学游泳,然后要忘记规则,自由地畅游。这都说明语法对于学好英语是必不可少(indispensable)的。掌握了一定的语法知识之后,你还需要每天练习说英文,俗话说熟能生巧,就说明练习的重要性。同时,你还需要多思考,以发掘(explore)语法规则背后的英文思维,正如中国有句古话(proverb)“学而不思则罔”。另外,记单词也很有帮助。不要说你没有语言天赋(aptitude),只要你尽力,你就一定能实现自己的目标!

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