5.7.2 动名词的完成被动式-英语语法新思维-高级英语-友谊教程网-www.01ue.com

5.7 动名词的时态和语态(二):完成式(having done)

5.7.1 动名词的完成主动式

一般来说,动名词的完成式表明动名词的动作发生在谓语的动作之前,尤其是当动名词的动作是在谓语之前的一段较长时间内持续的情况。

下面的短文讲到了在英国公司的雇员可以因为自家的宠物生病了而请假照顾它们,就像因为孩子生病需要照顾而请假一样:

1 Now in Britain you get time off work not only if you're sick but if your dog is. Companies there are beginning to allow employees to work from home or take days off to look after unwell pets. Some companies have introduced policies giving staff paid leave to care for ill dogs and cats or to take them to the vet.
Paid leave is awarded if you need to go to the vet or your animal needs an operation, in the same way people might need time off for a baby or to look after a child. Research by Petplan, a British insurance company, found that 35 percent of its customers admitted to having taken time off work to look after pets or settle new animals.
Cary Cooper, professor at Lancaster University, advised against the practice. "When jobs are insecure, telling a boss that you want time off work to look after a pet does not go down well," he said.

妙语点睛 这里动名词的完成式having taken类似于一个过去完成时态,相当于说its customers admitted that they had taken time off work to look after pets...,表示一种过去的经历。所以,这里动名词的动作是发生在谓语的动作之前,自然用完成式比较合适。

精品译文 现在的英国不仅因为你生病了可以请假,就连你的狗生病了,你也可以请假照顾它。公司开始允许雇员在家里工作,或者请几天假来照顾自己生病的宠物。有的公司为此还施行了新政策,给予员工带薪假,以便于他们照顾病狗、病猫,或者带它们去看兽医。

如果你需要带宠物去看兽医或者是它需要做手术,公司可以准你带薪假,这就像你需要时间照顾婴儿或是生病的孩子一样。一家英国保险公司Petplan的研究表明,它的35%的客户都承认,自己曾经请假回家照看宠物或安置新宠物。

再看其他例句:

2 He denied having been there.
=He denied that he had been there.

妙语点睛 动名词的动作在谓语的动作之前,所以说having been。

精品译文 他否认去过那里。

3 He regretted not having gone to university.

妙语点睛 动名词的动作在谓语的动作之前,所以说having gone。

精品译文 他很后悔当初没有上大学。

4 I repented having shot the bird.

精品译文 我后悔射杀了那只鸟。

5 I have always regretted not having studied harder at school.

精品译文 我一直后悔上学时没有更加努力地学习。

6 The man in the corner confessed to having told a lie to the manager of the company.

精品译文 墙角处的那个人承认对这家公司的经理说了谎。

5.7.2 动名词的完成被动式

动名词的完成被动式的构成是having been done,它兼具完成式和被动式的双重特点。下面这个句子讲的是一个孤儿的感受:

1 As they backed out of my drive way I stared at Jonathon's face. His eyes were sunk in and deep in the sockets. I knew it would take him many years to get over never having been loved. He was now free to make a life for himself and to make choices on his own.

妙语点睛 该句的动名词never having been loved是用在get over后面作宾语,显然动名词的动作是在谓语的动作之前,表示在过去一段较长时期内,他因为是孤儿而没有被人爱过,所以自然用完成被动式having been loved合适。

精品译文 当他们的车子后退离开我的车道时,我凝视着乔纳森的脸庞。他的双目深陷。我知道他将花上许多年的时间才能消除那种从来就没有被爱过的感觉。他现在可以自由地过自己想要的生活了,也可以自己作出选择。

再看其他例句:

2 I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.

妙语点睛 谓语appreciate是表示当前的情况,而动名词having been given是谈两年前的情况,即动名词的动作发生在谓语的动作之前,因此要用完成式。

精品译文 我很感激两年前得到一次出国留学的机会。

3 He prided himself on having never been beaten in chess.

精品译文 他为自己在棋奕上从未被击败而自豪。

最后,我们再来比较两个例句,分析括号中的动词该用何种形式填入空格:

4 1) Our modern civilization must not be thought of as     (create) in a short period of time.
2) Mark often attempts to escape     (fine) whenever he breaks traffic regulations.

正确答案 1) been created, 2) being fined。

妙语点睛 这两个例句都是四级考题。在例句1)中,首先,句子的主语civilization与create是被动关系,所以该用动名词的被动式;其次,“文明的创建”显然是在谓语动作be thought of as之前很长时间发生的,故要用完成式。被动式与完成式结合,即要用完成被动式的动名词,所以空格内应该填入having been created。在例句2)中,首先,句子的主语Mark与fine是被动关系,表示“马克被罚款”,所以该用动名词的被动式;其次,这里“罚款”是表示一般的情况,并不是发生在谓语的动作之前,所以要用一般式。被动式与一般式结合即要用一般被动式的动名词,所以空格内应该填入being fined。因此上面两句应该说成:

1) Our modern civilization must not be thought of as having been created in a short period of time.
2) Mark often attempts to escape being fined whenever he breaks traffic regulations.

精品译文 1)我们的现代文明决不能认为是在一朝一夕之间建立起来的。

2)马克每次违反了交通规则后常常试图逃避罚款。

思维总结

要求读者能够准确地判断何时该用动名词的完成式及完成被动式,这要结合上一节的内容来学习。

思维训练

Exercise 5.6-5.7

1. 用括号中动词的适当形式填空。

1. The text needs     (explain) once again.

2. The movie is worthy of     (see).

3. You must tell me the truth. I insist on     (tell) the truth.

4. I strongly object to     (treat) like a child.

5. Clint had a narrow escape. He was almost hit by a car. He barely avoided     (hit) by the speeding automobile.

6. Last year I studied abroad. I appreciate     (give) the opportunity to live and study in a foreign country.

7. I'm angry at him for     (not, tell) me the truth.

8. I don't enjoy     (laugh) at by other people.

9. A: You know Clint, don't you?
B: Clint? I don't think so. I don't recall ever     (meet) him.
10. A: What's the difference between “stop to do” and “stop doing”?
B: Hmmm, that's an interesting question. I don't recall     (ask) that question before.

2. 选择最佳答案填空。

11. Your hair wants    . You'd better have it done tomorrow. (9706 CET-4)

A. cut
B. to cut
C. cutting
D. being cut

12. Our modern civilization must not be thought of as     in a short period of time. (CET-4)

A. being created
B. to have been created
C. having been created
D. to be created

13. Mark often attempts to escape     whenever he breaks traffic regulations. (95-6 CET-4)

A. having been fined
B. to be fined
C. to have been fined
D. being fined

14. I have always regretted     harder at school.

A. to have not studied
B. not study
C. not having studied
D. not to study

15. The man in the corner confessed to     a lie to the manager of the company. (9706 CET-4)

A. have told
B. be told
C. being told
D. having told
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