5.7 动名词的时态和语态（二）：完成式（having done）
1 Now in Britain you get time off work not only if you're sick but if your dog is. Companies there are beginning to allow employees to work from home or take days off to look after unwell pets. Some companies have introduced policies giving staff paid leave to care for ill dogs and cats or to take them to the vet.
Paid leave is awarded if you need to go to the vet or your animal needs an operation, in the same way people might need time off for a baby or to look after a child. Research by Petplan, a British insurance company, found that 35 percent of its customers admitted to having taken time off work to look after pets or settle new animals.
Cary Cooper, professor at Lancaster University, advised against the practice. "When jobs are insecure, telling a boss that you want time off work to look after a pet does not go down well," he said.
妙语点睛 这里动名词的完成式having taken类似于一个过去完成时态，相当于说its customers admitted that they had taken time off work to look after pets...，表示一种过去的经历。所以，这里动名词的动作是发生在谓语的动作之前，自然用完成式比较合适。
2 He denied having been there.
=He denied that he had been there.
妙语点睛 动名词的动作在谓语的动作之前，所以说having been。
3 He regretted not having gone to university.
妙语点睛 动名词的动作在谓语的动作之前，所以说having gone。
4 I repented having shot the bird.
5 I have always regretted not having studied harder at school.
6 The man in the corner confessed to having told a lie to the manager of the company.
动名词的完成被动式的构成是having been done，它兼具完成式和被动式的双重特点。下面这个句子讲的是一个孤儿的感受：
1 As they backed out of my drive way I stared at Jonathon's face. His eyes were sunk in and deep in the sockets. I knew it would take him many years to get over never having been loved. He was now free to make a life for himself and to make choices on his own.
妙语点睛 该句的动名词never having been loved是用在get over后面作宾语，显然动名词的动作是在谓语的动作之前，表示在过去一段较长时期内，他因为是孤儿而没有被人爱过，所以自然用完成被动式having been loved合适。
2 I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.
妙语点睛 谓语appreciate是表示当前的情况，而动名词having been given是谈两年前的情况，即动名词的动作发生在谓语的动作之前，因此要用完成式。
3 He prided himself on having never been beaten in chess.
4 1) Our modern civilization must not be thought of as (create) in a short period of time.
2) Mark often attempts to escape (fine) whenever he breaks traffic regulations.
正确答案 1) been created, 2) being fined。
妙语点睛 这两个例句都是四级考题。在例句1）中，首先，句子的主语civilization与create是被动关系，所以该用动名词的被动式；其次，“文明的创建”显然是在谓语动作be thought of as之前很长时间发生的，故要用完成式。被动式与完成式结合，即要用完成被动式的动名词，所以空格内应该填入having been created。在例句2）中，首先，句子的主语Mark与fine是被动关系，表示“马克被罚款”，所以该用动名词的被动式；其次，这里“罚款”是表示一般的情况，并不是发生在谓语的动作之前，所以要用一般式。被动式与一般式结合即要用一般被动式的动名词，所以空格内应该填入being fined。因此上面两句应该说成：
1) Our modern civilization must not be thought of as having been created in a short period of time.
2) Mark often attempts to escape being fined whenever he breaks traffic regulations.
1. The text needs (explain) once again.
2. The movie is worthy of (see).
3. You must tell me the truth. I insist on (tell) the truth.
4. I strongly object to (treat) like a child.
5. Clint had a narrow escape. He was almost hit by a car. He barely avoided (hit) by the speeding automobile.
6. Last year I studied abroad. I appreciate (give) the opportunity to live and study in a foreign country.
7. I'm angry at him for (not, tell) me the truth.
8. I don't enjoy (laugh) at by other people.
9. A: You know Clint, don't you?
B: Clint? I don't think so. I don't recall ever (meet) him.
10. A: What's the difference between “stop to do” and “stop doing”?
B: Hmmm, that's an interesting question. I don't recall (ask) that question before.
11. Your hair wants . You'd better have it done tomorrow. (9706 CET-4)
B. to cut
D. being cut
12. Our modern civilization must not be thought of as in a short period of time. (CET-4)
A. being created
B. to have been created
C. having been created
D. to be created
13. Mark often attempts to escape whenever he breaks traffic regulations. (95-6 CET-4)
A. having been fined
B. to be fined
C. to have been fined
D. being fined
14. I have always regretted harder at school.
A. to have not studied
B. not study
C. not having studied
D. not to study
15. The man in the corner confessed to a lie to the manager of the company. (9706 CET-4)
A. have told
B. be told
C. being told
D. having told