5.5 动名词的逻辑主语-英语语法新思维-高级英语-友谊教程网-www.01ue.com

5.5 动名词的逻辑主语

同不定式类似,动名词也是动词的一种变化形式。既然是动词就应该有动作的执行者,即主语。而句子的主语和动名词的动作执行者并不总是统一的,有时是一样的,有时不一样,所以称之为逻辑主语,以区别于句子的主语。动名词与其逻辑主语一起构成动名词的复合结构。在本节中,我们先讨论动名词复合结构的构成,然后讨论它的用法。

5.5.1 动名词复合结构的构成

物主代词(如his, my, your等)或所有格名词(如Mary's, Tom's等)与动名词连用,即构成动名词的复合结构(如his doing, Mary's doing等),用来引出动名词的逻辑主语。当句子的主语并不是动名词动作的执行者时,我们往往需要给出动名词自己的动作发出者,即动名词的逻辑主语。请比较:

1 1) Clint insisted on reading the letter.
2) Clint insisted on my reading the letter.

妙语点睛 在例句1)中,没有使用动名词的复合结构,此时,句子的主语Clint同时充当动名词reading的逻辑主语,即“Clint看了信”。在例句2)中,采用了动名词的复合结构,此时,句子的主语Clint并非动名词reading的逻辑主语,而my才是reading的逻辑主语,即“我看了信”。

精品译文 1)克林特坚持要看信。

2)克林特坚持要我看信。

2 1) I object to making private calls on this phone.
2) I object to his making private calls on this phone.

妙语点睛 在例句1)中,没有使用动名词的复合结构,此时,动名词making的逻辑主语并不明确,可以是指某一类人。在例句2)中,采用了动名词的复合结构,此时,动名词making的逻辑主语非常明确,即“他”。

精品译文 1)我不赞成用这部电话打私人电话。

2)我不赞成他用这部电话打私人电话。

我们看到,在以上两个例句中,动名词的复合结构是由物主代词(如my和his)后面接一个动名词构成的。动名词的复合结构也可以由名词所有格接动名词构成。请比较:

3 1) Would you mind telling us the whole story?
2) Would you mind Tom's telling us the whole story?

妙语点睛 在例句1)中,没有使用动名词的复合结构,此时,句子的主语you同时充当动名词telling的逻辑主语,即“你来讲述”。在例句2)中,采用了动名词的复合结构,此时,句子的主语you并非动名词telling的逻辑主语,而Tom才是telling的逻辑主语,即“汤姆来讲述”,相当于说Would you mind if Tom tells us the whole story?

精品译文 1)你是否愿意把事情的经过告诉我们?

2)你是否愿意让汤姆把事情的经过告诉我们?

4 1) He disliked working late.
2) He disliked his wife's working late.

妙语点睛 在例句1)中,没有使用动名词的复合结构,此时,句子的主语he同时充当动名词working的逻辑主语,即“他加班”。在例句2)中,采用了动名词的复合结构,此时,句子的主语he并非动名词working的逻辑主语,而his wife才是working的逻辑主语,即“他妻子加班”。

精品译文 1)他不喜欢加班。

2)他不喜欢他妻子加班。

再看其他例句:

5 The eye of an animal is quite easy to see. How then can the eyes be prevented from spoiling the animal's blending with its environment? One solution would be for the animal to keep its eyes closed when danger threatens.

妙语点睛 该句中的动名词的复合结构the animal's blending是由名词所有格the animal's与动名词blending构成的。

精品译文 动物的眼睛很容易被发现,因此,如何防止眼睛不破坏动物与其周围环境的融合呢?有一个方法是,当危险来临时,动物们可以把自己的眼睛闭起来。

值得注意的是,在某些情况下,动名词的逻辑主语可以不是物主代词或名词所有格,而是直接采用宾格代词(如me和him)或普通格名词(如Tom和his wife)。请看下面例句:

6 That yearning for study was still there. I came here with no thought of it being an unusual thing at all.

妙语点睛 这句话是由时年95岁的美国老太太诺拉·奥克斯说的。她于2007年5月12日从美国堪萨斯州海斯堡州立大学毕业,成为全球最年长的大学毕业生。该句中的动名词的复合结构it being是由宾格代词it与动名词being构成的。当然这里我们也可以说its being。

精品译文 我仍有强烈的学习的愿望,到这来我一点也不觉得有什么反常的。

7 Romantic love is very much a part of American culture. Movies, TV shows and books in America all picture people falling in love. Americans know no romance is perfect, but still they try to find the ideal person.

妙语点睛 该句中的动名词的复合结构people falling in love是由普通格名词people与动名词falling构成。当然这里我们也可以说people's falling in love。

精品译文 浪漫爱情是美国文化的重要组成部分。美国的电影、电视和书籍都描绘人们如何坠入爱河。美国人知道没有哪段罗曼史是完美的,但他们还是努力去寻找自己理想的意中人。

8 Physically and mentally women are by far the superior to men. The old chestnut about women being more emotional than men has been forever destroyed by the facts of two great wars.

妙语点睛 该句中的动名词的复合结构women being more emotional than men是由普通格名词women与动名词being构成的。当然这里我们也可以说women's being more emotional than men。

精品译文 女性在身体上和精神上都大大优越于男性。两次世界大战的事实永远粉碎了女人比男人更多愁善感的陈词滥调。

看到这里,读者也许不禁要问:如何判断该用所有格还是普通格呢?对这个问题,笔者将在下面的小节里给出答案。

5.5.2 所有格还是普通格?

在应用动名词的复合结构时,什么时候用普通格,什么时候用所有格,一般遵循下面的规定:

一、若动名词的复合结构在句中作主语,最好用所有格形式

请看例句:

1 Tom's refusing to accept the invitation upset me.

妙语点睛 该句中的动名词的复合结构Tom's refusing to accept the invitation在句中作主语,因而不宜用普通格名词Tom refusing...。

精品译文 汤姆拒绝接受邀请,这让我很恼火。

2 His refusing to accept the invitation upset me.

妙语点睛 该句中的动名词的复合结构his refusing to accept the invitation在句中作主语,因而不宜用宾格代词Him refusing...。

精品译文 他拒绝接受邀请,这让我很恼火。

二、动名词的复合结构在句中作宾语时,用普通格或所有格均可

请看例句:

3 Do you mind me/my making a suggestion?

精品译文 我提个建议,你介意吗?

4 I am annoyed about John/John's forgetting to pay.

精品译文 约翰忘记付钱,这让我很生气。

5 I remember him once offering to help us if we ever got into trouble.

精品译文 我记得他曾经承诺,一旦我们遇到麻烦他就会来帮助我们。

6 The latest revolution isn't simply a matter of gentlemen reading other gentlemen's e-mail.

妙语点睛 这里的gentlemen reading other gentlemen's e-mail即是一个动名词的复合结构,其中动名词的逻辑主语用了普通格名词gentlemen,当然也可以用所有格gentlemen's。

精品译文 最近的这次革命不只是一些人偷看另一些人的电子邮件的问题。

7 All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child committing a criminal act.

妙语点睛 这里的a child committing a criminal act即是一个动名词的复合结构,其中动名词的逻辑主语用了普通格名词a child,当然也可以用所有格a child's。

精品译文 所有这些条件往往会增加青少年犯罪的可能性。

8 If you are part of the group which you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it'll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman's notorious bad taste in ties. With other audiences you mustn't attempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making disparaging remarks about their canteen or their chairman.

妙语点睛 因为resent的后面要求接动名词作宾语,所以这里的an outsider making disparaging remarks即是一个动名词的复合结构,其中动名词的逻辑主语用了普通格名词an outsider,当然也可以用所有格an outsider's。

精品译文 如果你是你谈话对象的一部分,你就能够了解你们所共有的经历和问题,就可以对餐厅那不可入口的食物和老总在选择领带方面糟糕的品位评头论足。而对于其他听众,你就不能试图插入这种幽默,因为他们不喜欢外人对他们的餐厅或老总有如此微词。

三、当动名词的逻辑主语是无生命的“物”而不是“人”时,最好用普通格

请看例句:

9 The noise of the desks being opened and closed can be heard out in the street.

妙语点睛 这里的the desks being opened and closed即是一个动名词的复合结构,其中动名词的逻辑主语用了普通格名词the desks,因为是表示“物”。

精品译文 课桌开关的声音在大街上都能听得到。

10 There is a necessity for this type of houses being built.

妙语点睛 这里的this type of houses being built即是一个动名词的复合结构,其中动名词的逻辑主语用了普通格名词this type of houses,因为是表示“物”。

精品译文 有必要修建这种类型的房屋。

11 In the event of the project not being a success, the investors stand to lose up to $30 million.

妙语点睛 这里的the project not being a success即是一个动名词的复合结构,其中动名词的逻辑主语用了普通格名词the project,因为是表示“物”。

精品译文 万一这个项目投资失败,投资者将会损失三千万美元。

12 The young leading the young, is like the blind leading the blind; "They will both fall into the ditch." The only sure guide is he who has often gone the road which you want to go. Let me be that guide, who have gone all roads, and who can consequently point out to you the best.

妙语点睛 这里的the young leading the young即是一个动名词的复合结构,其中动名词的逻辑主语是the young,表示“年轻人”。虽然是表示“人”,但由于是形容词,而形容词是没有所有格形式的,所以不说the young's。

精品译文 青年为青年引路,如同盲人为盲人引路;“两人会一同掉进沟里。”唯一可靠的向导是这样的人:他常走的路正是你想走的路。且让我当这样一位向导吧,我走过各种各样的路,所以能够为你指明门路。

四、当动名词的逻辑主语是不定代词(如someone, anyone, everyone等)时,最好用普通格

请看例句:

13 He was awakened by someone knocking on the door.

精品译文 有人敲门,把他吵醒了。

五、当动名词的逻辑主语由较长的一组词构成时,最好用普通格

请看例句:

14 There is no point any one of us arguing with him.

妙语点睛 这里的any one of us arguing即是一个动名词的复合结构,其中动名词的逻辑主语any one of us是一个短语,不便用所有格代词。

精品译文 我们谁与他争论都没有用。

15 I've always had in my mind a dream of my father, mother and I living together.

妙语点睛 这里的my father, mother and I living together即是一个动名词的复合结构,其中动名词的逻辑主语my father, mother and I是一个名词短语,不便用所有格代词。

精品译文 我一直有一个梦想,我的父亲、母亲和我生活在一起。

16 Do you remember John and his father coming to see us last Christmas?

妙语点睛 这里的John and his father coming to see us last Christmas即是一个动名词的复合结构,其中动名词的逻辑主语John and his father是一个名词短语,不宜用所有格。

精品译文 你还记得约翰和他父亲去年圣诞节来看望我们吗?

再比如我们在5.2.1小节讨论过的这个句子:

17 Richard Doran, a professional radio host in China, remains skeptical that such shows are actually improving mutual understanding. "They still ask if we know how to use chopsticks," he says. "Can you imagine a European television station putting a Pakistani immigrant family on television and asking if they'd learned to use a knife and fork yet?"

妙语点睛 这里的a European television station putting...即是一个动名词的复合结构,其中动名词的逻辑主语a European television station是一个短语,不宜用所有格。

精品译文 理查德·多兰在中国是一名专业的电台主持人,他对外国人参与中国的电视节目能否真正增进中国与外界的相互了解依然持怀疑态度。“中国的节目主持人依然会问‘你们会用筷子吗?’这类问题,”他说,“你能想象一个欧洲的电视台采访一个巴基斯坦移民家庭,然后问他们‘你们学会使用刀叉了吗?’这类的问题吗?”

再比如我们在5.2.2小节讨论过的这个句子:

18 As an alternative to using a single-occupancy vehicle, carpooling involves two to five commuters sharing a vehicle. The more people in a carpool, the greater the savings. Depending on the arrangements made, one person can do all the driving and be reimbursed by the riders.
Carpooling can limit use of personal vehicle for daily commuting, reduce air pollution, save time by using High Occupancy Vehicle Lane and provide useable time for riders--read, sleep, work and talk. It is also a viable solution for employees who do not drive.
Carpooling can be encouraged through computerized matching of riders with similar commute patterns and preferences.

妙语点睛 这里的two to five commuters sharing a vehicle即是一个动名词的复合结构,其中动名词的逻辑主语two to five commuters是一个短语,不便用所有格。

精品译文 作为单人驾车之外的选择,拼车是指两到五个通勤者共乘一辆车。拼车的人越多,省的越多。一个人可以自始至终驾车,而由其他乘车人付费,就看如何安排了。

拼车可以减少用于日常通勤的私车的数量,减少空气污染,使用拼车专行道从而可以节省时间,而乘车人也有了可支配的时间,用来阅读、睡觉、工作和谈话。对于不开车的员工来说,拼车也是解决通勤问题的可行之道。

通过电脑匹配的方式,可以让有相似通勤模式和偏好的人更容易寻找到共同的乘车人,从而鼓励人们拼车。

在以上五点内容中,前两点是与动名词的复合结构在句中所充当的成分有关,后三点则是与动名词的逻辑主语本身的构成有关。

5.5.3 动名词复合结构的用法

这种结构常在句中作主语或宾语。请看例句:

一、用作主语

1 Tom's coming home at last was a great consolation.

2 The young leading the young, is like the blind leading the blind; "They will both fall into the ditch." The only sure guide is he who has often gone the road which you want to go. Let me be that guide, who have gone all roads, and who can consequently point out to you the best.

二、用作动词的宾语

3 Do you mind my making a suggestion?

4 Would you mind Tom's telling us the whole story?

5 As an alternative to using a single-occupancy vehicle, carpooling involves two to five commuters sharing a vehicle. The more people in a carpool, the greater the savings. Depending on the arrangements made, one person can do all the driving and be reimbursed by the riders.

6 Can you imagine a European television station putting a Pakistani immigrant family on television and asking if they'd learned to use a knife and fork yet?

三、用作介词的宾语

7 Our discussion of earthquakes would be incomplete if we didn't raise the possibility of their being caused by external forces.

8 Clint insisted on my reading the letter.

9 What are the chances of a sleepwalker's committing a murder or doing something else extraordinary in his sleep?

10 When I was a child, I would take a flashlight to bed with me so that I could read comic books without my parents' knowing about it.

思维总结

本节讨论了动名词的复合结构,即有关动名词的逻辑主语问题,是动名词的重点内容之一。建议读者重点掌握5.5.1和5.5.2小节。

思维训练

Exercise 5.5

选择最佳答案填空。

1.     in an atmosphere of simple living was what her parents wished for.

A. The girl was educated
B. The girl educated
C. The girl's being educated
D. The girl to be educated

2. I still remember     me to Beijing for the first time.

A. for my parents to take
B. my parents' taking
C. that my parents take
D. my parents to take

3. I don't see how you can avoid the matter    .

A. discussed
B. to be discussed
C. being discussed
D. been discussed

4. Last night I was awakened by someone     at the door.

A. tap
B. tapping
C. tapped
D. to tap

5. The noise of the desks     could be heard out in the street.

A. opening and closing
B. of being opened and closed
C. to be opened and closed
D. being opened and closed

6. You must tell me the truth. I insist on     the truth.

A. telling
B. having told
C. your telling
D. that you tell

7. I remember     to help us if we ever got into trouble. (9306CET-4)

A. once offering
B. him once offering
C. him to offer
D. to offer him

8. Anyone with half an eye on the unemployment figures knew that the assertion about economic recovery     just around the corner was untrue.

A. would be
B. to be
C. was
D. being

9. Nowhere in nature is aluminum found free, owing to its always     with other elements, most commonly with oxygen.

A. combined
B. having combined
C. combine
D. being combined
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